Fire Sprinklers, Pumps, & Tanks

Liquid Storage Tank Protection

Liquid Storage Tank Protection

Liquid Storage Tank Foam Protection

A closer look

This tank stores combustible and/or flammable liquid material. Protection is provided with both interior and exterior protection. The exterior protection for the tank is provided with a ring(s) of piping which feeds open head directional sprinklers. These sprinklers may spray foam solution which has been mixed at the deluge valve, or it may spray water only. The detection is a ring(s) of sprinkler heads which are installed on a pilot line. When a sprinkler head fuses, the air pressure within the piping is released, and a deluge valve is actuated. When the deluge valve operates, water flows through the piping to the open sprinkler heads which are directed onto the sides of the tank.

There is also interior foam application installed in this tank. The application device consists of an air aspirating foam expansion chamber and an integral foam maker. This style is referred to as a “Type II” top-side application device.  The foam chamber is installed above the highest level of product storage. The foam concentrate is mixed into a foam solution in an area which is outside of the hazard area, and then travels to the expansion chamber. The foam expands, is discharged against a deflector plate inside the tank, and is then gently delivered onto the surface of a liquid. Flow rates are sized for each specific tank.

From just a mere flicker of a flame to a fully involved room fire in less than three minutes. This incredible video by NIST shows just how quickly a small fire can develop into a roaring inferno. Fire sprinklers can prevent a small fire from becoming a life altering event.
This video is produced by Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology which is part of the US Department of Commerce (

This video shows the comparison of two college dormitory rooms. One is protected with fire sprinklers, the other is not. Which room would you rather have your son or daughter living in?

This video is produced by United States Fire Administration. (

Some Interesting tidbits from the archives.

Water mist sprinkler heade on a cruise ship
Water mist sprinkler heade on a cruise ship

Hi-Fog systems are used in shipboard fire protection systems. These heads deliver a low volume, high velocity discharge mist of water which will control or extinguish a fire in the enclosure. These nozzles may also be installed to protect the laundry, galley ducts, as well as the deep fat fryers in kitchens. This head is believed to be a Hi-Fog 1000 head manufactured by Marioff. This head will have a strainer in the base to help prevent it from becoming clogged.

Viking High Challenge 280°F 0.64 Orifice Sprinkler Head

In the 1970′s, Factory Mutual conducted many tests in an effort to meet the growing fire challenges from the ever more hazardous warehousing commodities and configurations. An early solution was the High Challenge Sprinkler Head. This head is a Viking High Challenge 280°F 0.64 Orifice Sprinkler Head. It produced a larger water droplet which better penetrated through the fire in racks to reach the seat of the fire. Click here for more on fire sprinkler history.

Steam underwriters pump

This is a Steam Underwriters Pump. They were the mainstay of fire protection pumps at the turn of the last century. Today, these pumps are not longer recognized for fire service. Today, plants do not typically maintain a reliable head of steam to operate these pumps. Click for more on fire pumps.

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